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History Allies: for most of World War II the Allies were Britain, Russia and the USA. In World War I, Britain, France and the USA were the principal members of the Alliance.

Archaeology: the study of the past by examination of monuments, buildings, manuscripts and other relics.

Axis: the powers opposed to the Allies in World War II. These were Germany and Italy, followed by Japan. Other European countries occupied by Germany also joined.

Black Death: the great outbreak of plague that attacked Europe in the 1300s, spread by the bite of infected rat fleas.

Byzantium: an ancient Greek city on the shores of the Bosphorus in modern Turkey. It later become known as Constantinople, and after the Islamic conquest became modern Istanbul.

Carbon dating: the method for dating materials contain ing organic material. These contain tiny amounts of radioactive carbon, which decays at a steady and predictable rate. Measurement of the radioactivity remaining gives an accurate date.

Celts: warlike tribes who from 2000bc to IOObc spread throughout Europe. They were gradually absorbed into local populations and came into conflict with the Romans.

Central Powers: the group of nations opposed to the Allies during World War I. They consisted of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and later the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.

Cold War: the period of tension between the USSR and its satellite countries and the USA and its allies, after World War II.

Constantinople: the capital of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire in the Christian era from AD330 to 1453, when it was finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks.

Cultural Revolution: a movement started in China by Mao Zedong when tension with the USSR led to fears that communism was becoming weakened.

Dark Ages: generally, the period between ad500 and 1000, when the western part of the Roman Empire had collapsed and much of Europe returned from city life to a rural economy.

French Revolution: a revolution that took place in France between 1787 and 1799. Peasants and the middle class rose up against government and the king,and eventually the whole structure of government was destroyed.

Heresy: an idea or system that is regarded by church authorities as being false.
Indo-Europeans: tribes from the Steppes of Asia who began to invade Europe during the 3rd century bc. Their language can still be traced in cultures thousands of kilometres apart.

Indus civilizations: a very early civilization that existed in the area now within India and Pakistan. This culture existed at the same time as the developing civilizations in Egypt and Sumeria.

Industrial Revolution: starting in Britain in the 1700s, the Industrial Revolution was a movement away from farming into the development of industry and trade based upon manufacturing. It led to the development of canals, railways, steam power and many industrial processes.

Islam: the religion founded by the prophet Mohammed in the 7th century.

Mongols: tribes of nomads from the Asian steppes who grouped together under the command of Genghis Khan in the 13th century.

Moors: the Moors were Arabs who conquered part of Spain and lived there between the 11th and 17th centuries, after which they were driven out, to return to North Africa.

Persia: now known as Iran, the Persian Empire was founded around IOOObc. From about 500bc the Persian empire was in frequent conflict with the Greeks and its power gradually diminished.

Phoenicians: the Phoenician Empire began in modern Lebanon and the Phoenicians quickly became powerful traders operating throughout the Mediterranean and even as far as Britain.

Renaissance: the period after the Middle Ages when learning and art blossomed.

Saxons: the Saxons lived along the coasts of North Germany and during the 5th century they expanded their territory enormously, invading Britain and the coast of Gaul (modern France).

Sumeria: the Sumerian civilization was one of the first known. It developed in the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the Middle East, in Mesopotamia, the region now largely occupied by Iraq.

Tudors: the powerful English monarchy of Welsh origin that was founded by Henry VII in 1485, and continued until the death of Elizabeth I in 1603.

Tags: tudors, persia, sumeria, carbon dating

Category: Education  - ( Education Archive)

Date Added: 04 January '12

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