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Nature Algae: primitive plants, mostly living in water. Larger algae like seaweeds lack woody parts, while others are tiny microscopic organisms.

Amphibians: animals that must return to water in order to breed. Typical amphibians are frogs, toads, newts and salamanders.

Arachnid: an animal with jointed limbs from the group containing spiders, scorpions and mites.

Arthropod: any animal whose body is protected by a hard external skeleton and has jointed limbs.

Bacteria: tiny organisms with no cell nucleus, usually having a tough cell wall. Many bacteria cause disease, but far more live in the soil and in almost every part of our environment.

Conifer: a tree that produces its seeds in a structure called a cone. Coniferous plants generally have needle-like leaves, which are often retai ned through cold winters.

Crustacean: arthropods such as crabs, lobsters and shrimps. Most crustaceans are aquatic, and their larvae usually live in the plankton as they develop.

Deciduous: trees and plants which drop their leaves in the winter, in order to conserve their energy and food stores.

Ethology: the scientific study of animal behaviour.

Evolution: the gradual change in an organism over many generations, making it better adapted to its environment.

Food chain: a community of living creatures in which each lives on the next
organism below it in the chain. Humans are the top of many food chains, living on food animals which in turn live on grass, which is nourished by soil organisms, and so on.

Fungi: primitive plant-like organisms which lack a cell wall. Most fungi live on decaying organisms, and have an important role in breaking them down so that other organisms can use their nutrients. Mushrooms are a type of fungi.

Genus: a group of related organisms, which have many characteristics in common.

Gizzard: muscular grinding organ present in birds, which breaks up their food.
Invertebrates: animals without backbones, such as arthropods and worms.

Larva: an immature form of an animal such as a caterpillar or a tadpole.

Mammals: animals that give birth to live young and suckle them with milk.

Marsupials: primitive mammals, like the kangaroo, that give birth to tiny immature young which they rear in a pouch.

Metamorphosis: the complete change in the structure and appearance of an animal as it develops. For example, caterpillars metamorphose into butterflies or moths.

Migration: journeys undertaken by animals for the purpose of breeding, or to follow food supplies. Migration is seen in birds,fish and mammals.

Mollusc: an invertebrate animal whose soft body is usually protected by a shell, such as shellfish and snails.The octopus and squid are also molluscs, but they have a small internal shell.

Palaeontology: the study of extinct animals through their fossil remains.

Pecking order: a form of animal behaviour in which the members of a group arrange themselves with the top animal dominating the others, the next most senior dominating those below it, and so on.

Photosynthesis: the process used by plants in which the green pigment chlorophyll is used to convert the Sun's energy, carbon dioxide and water into sugar.

Plankton: a mass of small organisms floating near the surface of the sea. Plankton contains the larvae of many animals, microscopic plants and tiny fish.

Protozoa: microscopic, single-celled animals.

Pupa: the form into which a larva changes as it develops into adult form. The cocoon of a butterfly is a typical pupa.

Reptile: a scaly-skinned, cold-blooded animal such as a crocodile, snake or lizard. Reptiles lay eggs, but sometimes hatch them internally to give birth to live young.

Species: a particular type of animal or plant.

Transpiration: the process in which water evaporates from leaf surfaces and helps to draw up more water from the plant roots.

Tundra: a cold environment in the northern parts of the world where low-growing grass and scrub support specialized animals.

Vertebrates: animals with backbones, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds


Tags: conifer, arachnid, bacteria, larva



Category: Education  - ( Education Archive)

Date Added: 04 January '12


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