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Science Acid: a sharp or sour-tasting substance.The degree of acidity is measured by its pH. Anything with a pH below 7.0 is an acid

Alkali: the opposite of an acid. A substance having a pH higher than 7.0. Alkalis are often compounds containing hydroxide or carbonate, together with an alkaline metal.

Antimatter: matter composed of particles with the opposite charge to normal matter.

Atom: the smallest part of an element that can exist. An atom consists of a core with other tiny particles revolving about it.
Crystal: the geometric shape that is formed when some elements or chemical compounds solidify. Many crystals have characteristic colours and shapes.

Doppler effect: a change in the frequency with which sound waves reach an observer, according to whether the object producing the so und is moving towards or away from the observer. The sound of a jet plane flying towards you becomes more shrill, and as it moves away the sound becomes deeper.

Electrode: an object conducting electricity, which is used to make contact with a non-metallic part of a circuit.

Electron: a negatively charged particle normally orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

Electronics: the technology that uses the movement and behaviour of electrons in devices such as transistors and other electronic devices.

Element: Any one of more than 100 substances that consist of a single type of atom. All matter consists of elements, alone or in combination with other elements.

Fission: the splitting of the nucleus of an atom, releasing large amounts of energy.

Friction: the resistance to movement between two bodies that are in contact.
Friction tends to slow down movement.

Fulcrum: the point at which a lever turns.

Fusion: the joining of light atomic molecules to make a heavier element, with the release of large amounts of energy. Nuclear fusion takes place in a hydrogen bomb explosion.

Half-life: the time it takes for half of the atoms in a radioactive substance to decay into a non-radioactive form.

Laser: a device that generates an intense beam of light of a single wavelength. Lasers are widely used in devices such as photocopiers and CD players.

Metric system: a system of measurement based on the metre, kilogram and litre. All measurements in the metric system are made in multiples of 10.

Microprocessor: a computer processor contained on an integrated circuit chip. The microprocessor is the 'thinking' part of a computer; all of the other components provide access to the microprocessor and ways of using the data it processes.

Molecule: the smallest part of a substance that retains all of its properties. A molecule may consist of two or more identical atoms or be a compound containing different types of atom.

Neutron: a particle found in the nucleus of an atom, which does not have any electrical charge.The only atom lacking a neutron is the hydrogen atom.
Periodic table: a table that classifies all elements into groups according to their properties.

Photon: a tiny particle of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of light or heat.

Plastic: a substance capable of being moulded when the bonds between the molecules are altered.The molecules of most plastics are linked into long chains.

Positron: a positively charged particle having similar characteristics to the electron, but is in most ways its opposite.

Printed circuit: an electrical circuit where the conductors are printed on an insulator.

Proton: a particle found in the nucleus of all elements. It carries a positive charge equal (but opposite) to that of an electron.

Radioactivity: a property possessed by some elements to emit particles as their nucleus decays. Radiation can cause damage to living tissues, but also has many practical uses.

Shell: the orbit in which electrons travel around the nucleus.

Silicon chip: silicon is the material that usually forms the base on which an integrated circuit or microprocessor is constructed. It can be etched in such a way that all of the components of an electronic circuit are produced on the chip on a microscopically small scale.

Spectrum: the bands of colour produced when a beam of white light is split by passing it through a prism. The bands of light are always arranged in the same sequence, according to their wavelength.  
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Tags: spectrum, science, proton, radioactivity



Category: Science & Tech  - ( Science & Tech Archive)

Date Added: 04 January '12


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