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Short facts about The Human Body

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Short facts about The Human Body AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a very serious condition resulting from infection with HIV, a virus that attacks the immune system. This virus weakens the body's defences so it succumbs easily to other infections.

Allergy: a condition in which the body responds to harmless substances like pollen or dust as if they were dangerous invaders, causing sneezing, itching or rashes.

Axon: the long fibre which is produced from a neurone, along which nerve impulses are passed.

Carbohydrate: a substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the form of
sugar, starch or cellulose.The majority of carbohydrates are produced by plants and are obtained from our food.

Cell: the smallest unit of life. Our bodies are built from billions of tiny cells.

Cerebrum: the outer surfac e of the largest part of the brain, where the processes of 'thinking'and 'memory'take place. The cerebrum is deeply wrinkled to increase its surface area.

Chromosomes: the tiny threads of genetic material that are inside each cell, which contain the blueprints for making a complete human being.

CNS: central nervous system, namely the brain and spinal cord.

Collagen: a tough, springy material that helps to make up tendons and ligaments, and which also strengthens the skin.

Dementia: a mental deterioration, with a variety of causes. Alzheimer's disease is a very severe form of dementia.

Diabetes: condition in which the body is not able to properly process sugar in the blood. It can be caused by the failure of the pancreas gland to make enough of the hormone insulin.

Dialysis: the process used to remove waste products from the blood when the
kidneys are not working effectively.

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, the substance used to code all of our genetic makeup.

Enzyme: a substance produced in the body that causes a chemical reaction to occur.

Excretion: the elimination of waste from the body, mostly via the urine.

Fibre: an indigestible material found in plant foods, which is important for maintaining the health of the gut.

Foetus: the developing child in a womb, three months after being conceived. At this stage it possesses almost all the features it will have when it is born, but is still very small in size.

Gene: an area on the thread of a chromosome which is responsible for a specific feature of a person, such as eye or hair colour. We have millions of genes.

Gland: a collection of cells that secrete a substance such as as a hormone or enzyme.

Hormone: a chemical messenger that is normally carried in the blood/switching' organs on or off.

Immune system: a network of lymph vessels and defensive cells and processes that spread throughout the body, protecting it from attack by microbes and the effects of dangerous substances.

Keratin: the hard horny material that is found in fingernails, hair and skin cells.

Lymphocite: white blood cells that form part of the immune system, fighting infection and destroying invading microbes.

Melanin: a dark pigment that colours the skin. Its function is to protect the skin from the burning effect of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

Mitochondria: Tiny granules in each cell which are responsible for the release of the energy to power the cell.

Mutation: a change in the genes that is passed on to the offspring.

Neurone: a nerve cell responsible for conducting nerve impulses.

Protein: a complex chemical substance which forms the bulk of our muscles, as well as many other tissues. Protein is obtained from our food, and after digestion, it is reassembled into different proteins needed by the body.

Receptor: a tiny structure attached to a nerve fibre, where an outside stimulus such as light, is converted into a nerve impulse.

Reflex: an automatic movement, often in response to a pain. If you burn your finger, a reflex pulls it away from the hot object before the brain has noticed the pain.

Synapse: the point where a nerve impulse jumps between two neurones, so the message continues along a nerve.

Vitamin: an important food substance which is needed in small amounts to assist in vital chemical reactions. Most vitamins are obtained from our food.

Tags: vitamin, receptor, protein, dna, diabetes

Category: Education  - ( Education Archive)

Date Added: 04 January '12

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